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GAR15

The Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR) is a biennial review and analysis of natural hazards published by the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR). The report implements the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) through monitoring risk patterns and trends and progress in disaster risk reduction and provides strategic policy guidance to increase resilience and reduce risk. GAR aims to help focus international attention and consolidate political and economic support to address disaster risk reduction. UN ISDR is the lead organisation for global governance of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and so has great influence on policy development, international collaboration among nations and decision-making on priorities and actions by nations. UN ISDR and GAR reports are also highly influential among NGOs, other international agencies (e.g. the World Bank, the European Space Agency) and the private sector.

GVM and IAVCEI were jointly commissioned by UNISDR to contribute reports on volcanic hazard and risk for the GAR15 study. Volcanoes have not been considered in previous GAR reports so this was a unique opportunity for the international volcanological community to make a broad global assessment of volcanism in the context of DRR and to present the state-of-the art in volcanic hazards and risk assessment.

Multiple GVM partners and colleagues in the volcanological community combined their resources and expertise for this study under the leadership of Sue Loughlin (BGS) and Steve Sparks (University of Bristol) and a GVM GAR15 steering committee. Ultimately, over 130 people from over 80 institutions worldwide contributed to the reports.

Four reports, known as background papers, were produced and submitted to the UNISDR in January 2015:

  1. Report I: Summary background paper on Global volcanic hazards and risk
  2. Report II: Technical background paper on Global volcanic hazards and risk
  3. Report III: Technical background paper on Volcanic ash fall hazard and risk
  4. Report IV: Global distribution of volcanism: Regional and country profiles

Report I is a general synoptic document prepared for a non-technical readership, providing an introduction to volcanic hazards and risk. This is expanded upon in Report II, which is a more detailed technical report providing greater depth on volcanic hazards and risk, evidence supporting our global assessments and case studies illustrative of key issues. Given the potentially widespread impact of volcanic ash, Report III concentrates on the ash fall hazard and risk and provides local and global hazard models. A profile for each country with a Holocene record of volcanism is provided in Report IV containing information on the volcanoes and their eruptions, population exposure and hazard and risk.

Methods for the global assessment of volcanic hazard, population exposure, threat and monitoring capacity were developed for the GVM/IAVCEI contribution to GAR15, building upon the methodologies employed in the World Bank GFDRR report (Aspinall et al. 2011). Volcanic data from key databases including the Smithsonian’s Volcanoes of the World were used to undertake these synoptic assessments, which were designed to enable relative ranking of the volcanoes and countries from a hazard and risk perspective, which may allow prioritisation of resources and identification of knowledge gaps. These assessments were not designed to substitute for local, focussed assessments. Data and analysis from these global assessments provided an evidence base for the preparation of our reports.

GAR15 will be launched at the United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai, Japan, in March 2015. Sue Loughlin and Steve Sparks will be in attendance and will represent GVM at this meeting.

GAR15 Steering Committee Members

  • Supriyati Andreastuti, CVGHM, Indonesia
  • Ben Andrews, Smithsonian Institution, USA
  • Sara Barsotti, IMO, Iceland
  • Sara Bazin, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute
  • Adele Bear-Crozier, Geoscience Australia
  • Sarah Brown, University of Bristol, UK
  • Eliza Calder, University of Edinburgh, UK
  • Marta Calvache, INGEOMINAS, Colombia
  • Liz Cottrell, Smithsonian Institution, USA
  • Hugo Delgado, UNAM, Mexico
  • Susanna Jenkins, University of Bristol, UK
  • Gill Jolly, GNS Science, New Zealand
  • Jean-Christophe Komorowski, IPGP, France
  • Elias Lewi, IGSSA, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
  • Sue Loughlin, British Geological Survey
  • Charles Mandeville, USGS
  • Warner Marzocchi, INGV, Italy
  • Steve McNutt, University of Alaska, USA
  • Victoria Miller, Geoscience Australia
  • Farrokh Nadim, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute
  • Tina Neal, USGS
  • Chris Newhall, Earth Observatory of Singapore
  • Paolo Papale, INGV, Italy
  • Sally Potter, GNS Science, New Zealand
  • Patricio Ramon, Geophysical Institute of Ecuador
  • Antonius Ratdomopurbo, WOVOdat, Earth Observatory of Singapore
  • Richie Robertson, Seismic Research Centre, University of the West Indies
  • Renato Solidum, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
  • Steve Sparks, University of Bristol, UK
  • Shinji Takarada, Geological Survey of Japan
  • Greg Valentine, University at Buffalo, USA
  • Charlotte Vye-Brown, British Geological Survey

Contributors to the reports

Alvarado, G.I. Institute of Electricity, Costa Rica
Andreastuti, S. Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Indonesia
Aspinall, W. University of Bristol, UK
Atici, G. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Turkey
Auker, M.R. University of Bristol, UK
Baptie, B. British Geological Survey
Barclay, J. University of East Anglia, UK
Barsotti, S. Icelandic Meteorological Office
Baxter, P. University of Cambridge, UK
Bear-Crozier, A. Geoscience Australia
Berrocoso, M. LAGC, Universidad de Cadiz, Spain
Biggs, J. University of Bristol, UK
Blong, R. Aon Benfield Asia-Pacific, Australia
Bonadonna, C. Université de Genève, Switzerland
Boulton, M. University of Bristol, UK
Branca, S. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy
Brown, S.K. University of Bristol, UK
Calder, E. University of Edinburgh, UK
Camejo, M. Seismic Research Centre, University of the West Indies
Chigna, G. INSIVUMEH, Guatemala
Clouard, V. Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique, West Indies
Costa, A. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy
Cottrell, E. Smithsonian Institution, USA
Crosweller, H.S. University of Bristol, UK
Crummy, J. British Geological Survey
Daud, S. Civil Contingencies Secretariat, Cabinet Office, UK
Delgado-Granados, H. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Deligne, N.I. GNS Science, New Zealand
Dessert, C. Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Guadeloupe, West Indies
Escobar, C.D. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, El Salvador
Escobar-Wolf, R. INSIVUMEH, Guatemala
Ewert, J. Cascades Volcano Observatory, USA
Faria, B. National Institute for Meteorology and Geophysics, Cape Verde
Felton, C. Civil Contingencies Secretariat, Cabinet Office, UK
Gahalaut, V.K. National Geophysical Research Institute, India
Garcia, A. Institute IGEO, CSIC-UCM, Spain
Gordeev, E. Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Russia
Gottsmann, J. University of Bristol, UK
Gutierrez, E. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, El Salvador
Harada, S. Japan Meteorological Agency
Hincks, T. University of Bristol, UK
Horwell, C. Durham University, UK
Ilyinskaya, E. British Geological Survey
Iriate, R. Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia
Itikarai, I. Rabaul Volcanological Observatory, Papua New Guinea
Jenkins, S.F. University of Bristol, UK
Jimenez, N. Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia
Jolly, G. GNS Science, New Zealand
Kamanyire, R. Public Health England, UK
Karume, K. Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo
Kauahikaua, J. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, USA
Kelman, M. Natural Resources Canada
Kheirkhah, M. Geological Survey of Iran
Khubaeva, O. Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Russia
Kianji, G. Geological Society of Kenya
Kilburn, C. University College London, UK
Komorowski, J-C. Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, France
Kristianto Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Indonesia
Kyle, P. New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, USA
Lara, L.E. SERNAGEOMIN, Chile
Leonard, G. GNS Science, New Zealand
Lin, C-H. Taiwan Volcano Observatory at Tatun
Lindsay, J. University of Auckland, New Zealand
Lombana-Criollo, C. Universidad Mariana, Colombia
Loughlin, S.C. British Geological Survey
Lowenstern, J. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, USA
Macedo, O. Instituto Geofisico del Peru
Macedonio, G. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy
Magill, C. Risk Frontiers, Macquarie University, Australia
Mandeville, C. U.S. Geological Survey
Marrero, J.M. Volcanic consultant, Spain
Marti, J. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Spain
Marzocchi, W. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy
Mee, K. British Geological Survey
Meliksetian, K. Armenian National Academy of Sciences
Mewa, G. Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
Miller, V. Geoscience Australia
Mothes, P. Instituto Geofísico Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ecuador
Mruma, A. Geological Survey of Tanzania
Munoz, A. Instituto Nicaraguense de Estudios Territoriales, Nicaragua
Nadim, F. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute
Nancarrow, S. Geoscience Australia
Newhall, C. Earth Observatory of Singapore
Oddsson, B. Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management, Iceland
Ogburn, S.E. University at Buffalo, USA
Ortiz Guerrero, N. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Ortiz, R. Institute IGEO, CSIC-UCM, Spain
Ottemoller, L. University of Bergen, Norway
Pallister, J. Volcano Disaster Assistance Program, US Geological Survey
Palma, J. University of Concepcion, Chile
Papale, P. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy
Park, K. Sungshin University, Republic of Korea
Petterson, M. Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Fiji
Poland, M. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, U.S. Geological Survey
Potter, S. GNS Science, New Zealand
Power, J. Alaska Volcano Observatory, USA
Pritchard, M. Cornell University, USA
Ramon, P. Instituo Geofísico EPN, Ecuador
Ray, J.S. Physical Research Laboratory, India
Robertson, R. Seismic Research Centre, University of the West Indies
Saballos, J.A. Instituto Nicaraguense de Estudios Territoriales, Nicaragua
Sandri, L. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy
Sayudi, D. Geological Agency of Indonesia
Scourse, E. University of Bristol, UK
Selva, J. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy
Siebert, L. Smithsonian Institution, USA
Sisson, T. U.S. Geological Survey
Smebye, H.C. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute
Smid, E. University of Auckland, New Zealand
Solidum, R. Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Philippines
Sparks, R.S.J. University of Bristol, UK
Stewart, C. Massey University, New Zealand
Stewart, R. Montserrat Volcano Observatory, West Indies
Stone, J. University of East Anglia, UK
Subandriyo, J. Geological Agency of Indonesia
Sumarti, S. Geological Agency of Indonesia
Surono Geological Agency of Indonesia
Takarada, S. Geological Survey of Japan
Taylor, P. Australian Volcanological Investigations
Tonini, R. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy
Turkecan, A.  General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Turkey
Valentine, G. University at Buffalo, USA
Varley, N. Universidad de Colima, Mexico
Venzke, E. Smithsonian Institution, USA
Villeneuve, V. Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion
Viramonte, J. Geonorte Inenco-Conicet, Argentina
Vougioukalakis, G.E. Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Greece
Vye-Brown, C. British Geological Survey
Wadge, G. University of Reading, UK
Wagner, K. University at Buffalo, USA
Webley, P. University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA
Wilson, T.M. University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Yun, S-H. Pusan National University, Republic of Korea
Zahran, H. National Centre for Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Saudi Arabia

The GVM/IAVCEI reports are in the process of being published as an open-access e-book by Cambridge University Press, see Global Volcanic Hazard and Risk book.

For further information please see:

UNISDR website: http://www.unisdr.org/

GAR project websites: http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/gar

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